Tuesday, 14 April 2009

Cinnamomum burmannii

Cinnamomum burmannii (Nees & T. Nees) Blume
Bijdragen tot de flora van Nederlandsch Indië 11: 569. 1826.

family: Lauraceae Juss.
genus: Cinnamomum Schaeff.

Laurus burmannii Nees & T. Nees Cinnam. Disp. [Amoen. Bot. Bonn.] Fasc. 1: 57. 1823.

“Trees; young branches terete, glabrous. Leaves glossy green, alternate, often opposite at
tips of young branches, narrowly ovate to ovate, ca. 10 cm long, 3-4 cm wide,
tripliveined, glabrous, apex gradually acute. Flowers strigose, in short, paniculate
inflorescences; tepals 6, equal, ca. 4 mm long, strigose; fertile stamens 9, outer 6 introrse,
inner 3 extrorse, staminodia present, cordate. Fruit an ellipsoid berry, subtended by a
small cupule that has the basal, truncate parts of tepals attached to the rim.” (Wagner et
al. 1999).

Cultivation: C. burmannii, along with other Cinnamomum species are cultivated for a
variety of purposes. The aromatic bark is used for making spices such as cinnamon,
perfumery, and medicine (Bailey and Bailey 1976). In Hawai’i C. burmannii has been
cultivated for ornament and for forestry plantations.

Indonesian Cassia
M. Hasanah, Y. Nuryani et al.
Indonesian cassia or Indonesian cinnamon is the dried bark of C. burmannii which is grown in the Malaysia-Indonesia regions and commercially cultivated in the Indonesian islands. It is grown most extensively in the Sumatera, Java and Jambi Islands and extends up to Timor, growing from sea level to about 2000 m. The main centre of cultivation is Padang area of Sumatra, at altitudes of 500-1300 m.

A variant of C. burmannii, which has red young leaves, is grown at a higher elevation in the region of Mount Korintji (Kerinchi). This cassia is of better quality and is traded in the international market as Korintji (Kerinci). The form having green young leaves is grown at lower elevations and is referred to in the international market as Padang cassia, batavia cassia or cassia vera. In a small scale it is also cultivated in Phillippines.

C. burmannii is a small evergreen tree, up to 15 m tall, having subopposite leaves. The petiole is 0.5-1cm long, with a blade that is oblong-elliptical to lanceolate, 4-14 cm x 1.5-6 cm; pale red and finely hairy when young. Older leaves are glabrous, glossy green above and glaucous pruinose below. Inflorescence is a short axillary panicle. Flowers are borne on 4-12 mm long pedicel, perianth 4-5 mm long and after anthesis the lobes tear off transversely about half way. Stamens about 4 mm long, staminoides 2 mm, fruit (berry) is ovoid, about 1 cm long. (Dao et al., 1999)

Cassia plants are raised from seed. Vegetative propagation is possible through cutting and layering but it is not practiced as such plants produce thinner bark of lesser quality.
Fruits are harvested at full ripening (when they become bluish black in colour), heaped for two or three days to allow the pericarp to rot, and are then washed in water to remove the fruit wall. Seeds freed from the pericarp, are dried in the shade and sown immediately in seedbeds. The viability of seeds is lost rapidly, and storing even for a few days may result in drastic reduction in germination.
Common names
CHINESE : Xiang jiao ye ? , Shan rou gui, 阴香 Yin xiang.
Batavia cinnamon (Source: World Econ Pl )
Batavia-cassia (Source: Food Feed Crops US )
Indonesian-cassia (Source: HerbSpices )
Java-cassia (Source: HerbSpices )
Korintje-cassia (Source: HerbSpices )
Padang cinnamon (Source: HerbSpices )
Padang-cassia (Source: World Econ Pl )
cannelier de Malaisie (Source: Dict Rehm ) [French]
Birmazimt (Source: S. Reichel, p.c.) [German]
Birmazimtbaum (Source: Dict Rehm ) [German]
Padangzimt (Source: S. Reichel, p.c.) [German]
Padangzimtbaum (Source: Dict Rehm ) [German]
falsa-canforeira (Source: Dict Rehm ) [Portuguese]

1 comment:

Rubus said...

It must be a mistake 'falsa-canforeira (Source: Dict Rehm ) [Portuguese]' since falsa-caneleira would be much more appropriate.