Saturday, 24 January 2009

Necessidades 1876

Goeze came to Portugal 1876 - 9 years = 1867
1873 came to Lisbon

Winter residence of D. Fernando and his second wife Condessa d'Edla. Garden is sheltered from sea breezes by robust trees planted by DF. There is an area of the garden for delicate plants sheltered by a "latada" (Trellis), high walls, and the palace walls. Heavy soil of lisbon was covered by thousands of cartloads of vegetable mould. Water in abundance.

Palms & Cycads

Jubaea spectabilis - bought 18 years ago from Van Houtte and planted immediately in open air. slow to start but grew quickly to 32 feet
Livistona Sinensis Mart. ou Latania Borbonica Lam. recent introduction to outdoor cultivation. large numbers have now been planted. Chinese. Rare in Portugal.
Sabal Adansonii - equally beautiful. Seedlings from this tree now growing in pots in the gardens.
Livistona australis (Corypha australis) Australia
Seaforthia elegans Australia very few plants of this species in the large collections of Europe that can be compared in size or beauty with those of the gardens of Necessidades.
Chamaerops - perfection. A group of 30 plants, four species. Planted with variegated Yuccas
Chamaerops humilis
C. excelsa
C. Fortunei
C. palmetto
Yucca - striped with red
Yucca striped with yellow
Cocos australis 40 - 50 feet trunk
Phoenix dactylifera at least 100 trees planted individually or in groups of 20 - 30 trees. These palms fruit every year, but the dates that they produce is much inferior.
Phoenix reclinata from the Cape of Good Hope - a few good plants, with charcteristic curve.
Japanese plants do not like the climate of Lisbon, for example Rhapis flabelliformis

CYCADS - a half dozen species
Dioon edule - much better looking plant than those grown in greenhouses. Planted out a few years ago. Has grown extraordinarily.
Cycas revoluta seven headed, two cones with mature seed. At least a dozen veterans, all imported. Together with a large number of young plants grown from seed.
Cycas circinalis Malabar
Encephalartos horridus
Zamia - "formosa"
Cycads from Japan, Mexico, East Indies, and the Cape. Missing the Australians - soon to be acquired.

Bambus nigra - grown at the margins of lakes with Papyrus and Hedychium

Strelitzia augusta
Strelitzia reginae
Dracaena draco - reasonably common in Lisbon
Cordyline australis
Dracaena heliconiafolia
Testudinaria elephantipes - very old plant

Araucari excelsa "Par excellence"! hundreds of them. Older trees are not so elegant.
Araucaria columnaris not so common. 3 truly beautiful specimens. More perfect form than excelsa.
Araucaria brasiliensis is the most common of the genus in Portugal.
Araucaria Cooki
Araucaria Cunninghamii
Both fast growing
Thuya pendula

A great rarity Sclerostylis Blume. Fam. Aurantiaceaes

CITRUS - too common to mention

Mangifer indica - see JHP vol. VI, p.7 Mango

Aralias collection
Ficus collection
Pittosporum and Myoporum collections interplanted with Salvia involucrata, Lantanas (in variety), Plumbago capensis, Sparmannia africana, Adhatoda vasica, roses in profusion.
Musa ensete planted a little over a year ago

Climbing Plants
Many climb over walls, other climb trees that are maintained specifically for this purpose.
Rosa banksiae white and yellow
Bougainvilleas 3 or 4 varieties

Begonias - used to edge paths
Geraniums (or Pelargoniums)

The climate of Lisbon can quite dispense with glasshouses. But at Necessidades many tropical plants are grown. Pineapples are grown in a long house. Cocos nucifera grown from seed in the same house. Also Vanilla that covers the walls. Next year to try artificial pollination for fruit.

"Grande Estufa com Zimborio"
Contains essentially Palms and Ferns.
Caryota urens
Terinax parviflora
diverse Arecas and Cocos
Last year a collection of Brazilian plants was sent by the brother in law of DF the Emperor of Brazil, including 5 or 6 big trunks of Lomaria imperialis with many fronds.

DESIGN OF GARDEN - everything is in its proper place. Science is allied with good taste to produce an irreprehensible perspective! From different point there are views of the river and other points - like a picture. Well conserved paths matisados com Aloe latifolia. Artificial lakes, brooks and rocks, colourful aquatic fowl. Groups of Palms, Araucarias, Magnolias with foliage to the ground.

Lisboa -- Eschola Polytechnica.
Edmond Goeze.

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