Saturday, 24 January 2009

Cascais 1876

Chalet Palmella

A garden by the sea.

Goeze admired this garden for by the manner in which the plants were grouped by geographical origin. The groups were placed considering soil and exposure to salt winds by Jacob Weiss.

A perfect imitation of the landscape of those islands

Dracaena draco
Euphorbia canariensis
E. piscatoria
E. balsamifera
E. atropurpurea (resembles Euphorbia rhipsaloides Welw. from tropical Africa)

Echiums - four or five species
Gonospernum fruticos
Phyllis Nobla
Kleinia neriifolia
Sempervivum canariense
Geranium anemonifolium
Bosea Yervamora (still rare)
Campanula Vidalii (Azores, common here grown in association with Canarian Plants)

Trees for the future forests of Portugal - will provide humidity
Fast growing and resistant to wind. Useful shelter.

Eucalyptus globulus - several hundred specimens. Need to be planted very close for mutual shelter near the sea - otherwise they break like glass
Eucalptus Stuartii
E. obilqua
E. viminalis
E. piperita
E. robusta
E. marginata

Acacia sophorae - most resistant for coastal gardens, compact

Myoporum acuminatum - superior to Euc. and Acacia for shelter and beauty.

Casuarinas for shelter (not excessively beautiful)

Araucaria excelsa sown at Cascaes showed greter vigor than at Lumiar. Seed obtained from the two large trees at Lumiar in the last few years. Similar metreological conditions to that of Norfolk Island.

CONIFERS (perfectly adapted)
Cupressus horizontalis
C. Tournefortii
C. Lambertiana
Cupressus glauca - Goeze uses this name for the Portuguese or Goa Cedro (needs more shelter - grown in less exposed areas of this garden)
Pinus insignis
Cephalotaxus fortunei
Biota aurea

Goeze was surprised to learn that Dracaena australis and Dracaena indivisa grew just as well as at Lumiar. They had reached considerable dimensions without being damaged by the wind.

The first intention in the design of this garden contemplated that the paths and roads should be lined with palm trees. This was frustrated by a lack of plant material, and a the lack of experience in growing palms under such conditions made the undertaking hazardous.

Livistona australis - splendid
Chamerops excelsa trunks of 7 feet (two examples)
Phoenix dactylifera - mixed amongst them
Isolated examples of:
Livistona sinensis
Sabal umbraculifera
Phoenix reclinata
Jubaea spectabilis

Eriobotrya japonica - a tree like few others for this situation. Grows well in poor soil, shining foliage, untouched by wind. Planted over large areas.

Acacia eburnea

Monocots from America
Splendid foliage plants

Dasylirium glaucum
D. gracile
D. longifolium (flowering)

Bromelia Caratas (enormous)

Yucca gloriosa
Yucca Parmentieri
Yucca filamentosa
Yucca aloifolia - very common around seaside Cascais

A. coccinea
A. Verschaffelti
A. americana (typical form)
A. americana Variegated forms - grown in their hundreds on slopes above main road. Variegated form is naturalised in Cascais

Mesembryanthemum - fresh green, red and yellow flowers

Fourcreya tuberosa
F. longaeva

Cactus - many species of this tribe

Doryanthes excelsa - an Australian amongst Americans

Eryngium pandanifolium
E. eburneum
E. Lasseuxii
E. giganteum
The Emperor of Brazil was surpried when he learned that these plants were of the carrot family!
(Mixed in with the Americam plants). Also contains some Africans:

Sanseviera cylindrica - no problem with wind
An Aloe introduced by Welwitsch that looked like Dracaena draco - but lighter coloured leaves with a brilliant coral red tip.

Portuguese Flora
Genista, Coronilla, Cytisus & Spartium
Rosmarinus officinalis
Cistus landaniferus + 4 or 5 other species
Empetrum album
Viburnum tinus

Picconia excelsa
Ilex perado

Roses in beds surrounded by Pelargoniums (near the sea)
Polygala myrtifolia
P. speciosa

Pittosporum tobira
P. umbellatum
Colletia horrida
Brachychiton populneum
Solanum (various species)

Deciduous trees and shrubs
Few, majority are failures here.
Successfully cultivated:
Cercis siliquastrum
Broussonetia papyifera
Celtis australis

Chalet Palmella has many "grutas" natural caves(?)
Arundo conspicua
Gynerium argenteum

Vineyards planted on rocky slopes, Olives, Orange trees (doubtful success)
Ficus carica
Opuntia Ficus Indica
Both planted for fruit in rocky areas otherwise barren.
Musa sapientum & M. sinensis (an experiment).

Climbers - various unlisted
Eugenia Michelii - flowers and fruit

House is still under construction. Noble Residence - comfortable too. Well sited.

Work of nature and Nature hand in hand.

Lisboa -- Eschola Polytechnica.

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