Saturday, 31 January 2009

Araucaria heterophylla


Araucaria heterophylla (Salisb.) Franco
Anais. Instituto Superior de Agronomia 19: 11-12. 1952.
Pinaceae Araucariaceae.

Sponte nascentem in Insula Norfolk.
Discovered by Captain Cook in 1774. He recognised them as different to the "pines" that he had seen in New Caledonia.
Norfolk Island, a small island in the Pacific Ocean between Australia, New Zealand and New Caledonia. Introduced 1793, by Sir Joseph Banks. Introduced to France in 1793 and again following the voyage by Ed. de la Touane in 1827. At Luxembourg in 1827 an Araucaria was planted in the open ground by M. Leinweber, who built a heated glass pavillion around it. This pavillion was dismantled in 1828 and re-erected each subsequent winter until in 1854 the tree was simply too large and a new construction was required. In 1855, 28 years after planting, this tree had reached 40 Viennese feet in height and was of perfect pyramidal form, but it had still not flowered.


"... GIGANTIC BUT GRACEFUL FORM, THE VERY PERSONIFICATION OF BEAUTY AND ELEGANCE IN THE VEGETABLE WORLD ..." Edinburgh Review 1864


O Instituto 1866 (p. 85) Edmond Goeze refers to Araucarias growing in the Passeio Publico and the Coimbra Botanic garden. At São Miguel, Azores, the Barão das Laranjeiras had a tree 70 ft high.


A. excelsa (lofty). The Norfolk Island Pine.When well grown, this is a beautifully symetrical greenhouse or conservatory species, attaining to a height of 150 ft., and a circumference of 20 ft. or more. This is especially desirable in a small state. There are several varieties known, the best being : Araucaria excelsa glauca, having lighter green, and very glaucous foliage ; and Araucaria excelsa robusta, which is larger in all its parts. Nicholson's Dictionary, 1888.



The Gardener's Magazine 1830 (J. C. Loudon) MISCELLANEOUS INTELLIGENCE

Mr Boursault of Paris ... possesses, without doubt, the finest Araucaria excelsa, Brazilian pine, of Europe. Elsewhere (Arb. et Fruct.) Loudon informs us that Boursault kept his plant, that was 12 ft high, in a conservatory during the winter and grown outdoors during the summer. Most greenhouse plants had to be cut back after only a few years as they reached the roof of the glass.


Loudon Arb. et Frut. p. 2442
At Kew two large potted specimens of Norfolk Island Pines were placed at the entrance gates during the summer: "at the point where the principal entrance meets it, there may generally be seen placed, during the summer months, the two noble Norfolk Island Pines (Araucaria excelsa), remarkable for their beautifully drooping and graceful branches, which almost resemble large ostrich plumes." In the winter they were housed in the Orangery together with "a very miscellaneous collection of trees and shrubs, which had become too large for the other greenhouses. The tenderer Pines (Coniferae) constitute, perhaps, the most prominent feature in this house, when it has received its inmates for the autumn and winter. Here, at that season, may be seen the noblest specimens in Europe of the Norfolk Island Pine, already mentioned as standing abroad during summer, the Moreton Bay Pine (Araucaria Cunninghami), the Brazilian Pine (A. Braziliana), the Bidwill Pine, named after its discoverer, Mr. Bidwill (the cones of this species are as large as a child's head), the China broad-leaved Pine (fig. 15.) (Cunninghamia lanceolata), the graceful long-leaved Pine from the Himalaya Mountains, and several others, equally rare, from Mexico and elsewhere, all of which need protection during the winter. In this house is a stately Rhododendron arboreum, from the mountains of Ceylon, and equally finely grown Camellias. The Gum Trees of Australia (Eucalyptus) are here, and easily recognisable: one of them, in particular, is distinguished by a summit reaching to the ceiling, and therefore unfortunately, but necessarily, despoiled of its crown." Kew Gardens, Or, A Popular Guide to the Royal Botanic Gardens, W. J. Hooker, 1847
Parmentier in Flanders 1828 had also to cut off the top of a gigantic Araucaria for lack of space in his glasshouse.
Loudon, in his Remarks on the Construction of Hothouses - 1817 - was already anticipating the building of large glass domes that would accomodate full-grown (well nearly) Norfolk Island Pines

A tree in the palm house of Messrs. Loddiges attained the height of 40 ft., when it was stopped in its progress by the glass roof, but, in general, this is the case when they less than are half that height. One at Kew, which was at one time the largest in the country, was tried in the open air, and died the first winter. One in the conservatory in the Hammersmith Bursery, which was planted in April, 1804, in seven years rose as high as the glass, and was obliged to be cut down ; and this has been the case repeatedly since. It has now wide spreading, pendulous, deep green branches, and a trunk upwards of 6 in. in diameter. One at Dropmore, in the open ground, was 14 ft. high in 1837 ; being protected during the winter so as to exclude the frost.



ARAUCARIA EXCELSA -- NORFOLK ISLAND PINE


Governor King measured some Norfolk Island Pines at 228 ft in height and 11 in diam. First discovered by Capt. Cook in his second voyage [There is however some confusion of species here]. See Cooks second voyage vol. ii 140 for a fine view. [Cook thought he had found a fine timber for nasts, but the tree proved too brittle for this purpose] p. 128 A few of these trees are now in the gardens of the curious about London; they thrive exceedingly well in our green-houses, grow very fast, and are one of the greatest ornaments of our collections. They can be increaserd by cuttings, but with great difficulty ; and never by this method make handsome plants. A most beautiful specimen, and the largest in the kingdom, is now in the Royal Gardens at Kew, to which it was first introduced by Governor Phillip. [contradicts the Banks tradition]


Aylmer Bourke Lambert : A Description of the Genus Pinus With Directions Relative to the Cultivation, and Remarks on the Uses of the Several Species : Also, Descriptions of Many Other New Species of the Family of Coniferae




In 1840 Loudon (Gardener's Magazine) describes the Araucaria excelsa growing in the open air at Lago Maggiore (Isolo Borromeo).


First Norfolk Island Pines planted in Australia were at Annandale Farm, property of JOHNSTON, GEORGE (1764-1823),. Johnston was on Norfolk Island from March 1790 until February 1791. He received was the land grant at Petersham Hill (near Sydney) that was to become Annandale Farm in February 1793 where he planted an avenue of the Araucarias from seed that he had brought from Norfolk Island. info
Growing at Calcutta Botanic Garden by 1813 (Maria Callcott, Journal of a Residence in India, p. 146)

But the productions which give the greatest importance to Norfolk Island are the pines and the flax plant, the former rising to a sizer and perfection unknown in other places, and promising the most valuable supply of masts and spars for our navy in the East Indies ; the latter not less estimable for the purposes of making sail cloth, cordage, and even the finest manufactures ; growing in great plenty, and with such luxuriance as to attain the height of eight feet [see footnote concerning Phormium - some roots have lately been sent to England]. The fern tree is found also of a great height for its species, measuring from seventy to eighty feet. The Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay, 1790, p. 108

Basionym:
Eutassa heterophylla Salisb. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 8: 316-317. 1807.

Synonyms
Pinus excelsa
Dombeya excelsa
Araucaria excelsa (Lamb.) R. Br. nom. illeg.
Hortus Kewensis; or, a catalogue . . . The second edition 5: 412. 1813.
Eutassa heterophylla Salisb.
Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 8: 316-317. 1807.
Dombeya excelsa Lamb. A Description of the Genus Pinus 1: 87. 1807. nom. illeg.
Columbea excelsa (Lamb.) Spreng., nom. illeg.
Eutacta excelsa (Lamb.) Link. , nom. illeg.
Pinus columbaria Dum. Cours.
Abies columbaria (Dum. Cors.) Dum. Cours.
Pinus australasia Bosc. nom. invalid., nom. nud.
Cupressus columnaris auct. non G. Forst.: J.G.A. Forster, Fl. Ins. Aust. 67 (1786), pp. Norfolk Is., spec. LHI (naturalised), NI




http://www.chah.gov.au/chah/apc/interim/Araucariaceae.pdf



Paxton's Botanical Dictionary as revised by Sam. Hereman (Paxton's secretary) 1868 lists another synonym, which Loudon uses in 1840 [but there is a confusion here with another genus of the same name]: Altingia excelsa (Altingia Noronha. Named in memory of Alting, a worthy German Botanist. Linn 22, Or. 13, Nat. Or. Pinaceae). Altingiaceae Lindl. The Vegetable Kingdom 253. 1846.

4 comments:

Becky Masters said...

Hi

I am wondering if you could tell me where you sourced your coloured botanical drawing from? My email is beckymasters@gmail.com

I am a NZ image researcher hoping to use it in a display

Thanks

Becky Masters said...

Hi

I am wondering if you could tell me where you sourced your coloured botanical drawing from? My email is beckymasters@gmail.com

I am a NZ image researcher hoping to use it in a display

Thanks

Becky Masters said...

Hi

I am a New Zealand image researcher and I am hoping you could assist me.

Could you please tell me where you sourced the coloured botanical drawing on this blog post?

Thanks


Becky Masters

Becky Masters said...

Hi

I am a New Zealand image researcher and I am hoping you could assist me.

Could you please tell me where you sourced the coloured botanical drawing on this blog post?

Thanks


Becky Masters