Saturday, 24 January 2009

Lumiar 1875

Lumiar established forty years earlier by grandfather of Duchess of Palmella
Gardener Jacob Weiss - thirty years at this establishment - first amongst Portuguese gardeners
Dr. Welwitsch
Herbarium of cultivated plants from Lumiar made by Welwitsch (?)
Initially many shrubs and small trees from the Cape and Australia
Many delicate specimens from Leguminosae, Ericaceae and Proteaceae were lost due to calcareous water.
Modern planting consists of more "pompas" species
Collection of Palms is "without rival" Established in 1856
List of Palms:
Jubaea spectabilis 30 feet trunk
Chamaerops Ghiesbreghtii 13 feet
Chamaerops excelsa 20 feet produces fertile seed - the ancestor of hundreds of plants in Portuguese gardens (public and private). Progeny much varied. Goeze was suspicious that fortunei and excelsa were the same species.
Livistona sinensis (Corypha) 13 feet
Livistona australis (Corypha) abundant at Lumiar, but planted later - still small
Phoenix leonensis Lodd. (P. spinosa) slow growing 13 feet plus leaves of 9 feet 6 inches
This last is similar with Ph. reclinata
Copernicia sp. Bahia small-growing
Rhapis flabelliformis grows poorly here and at Necessidades
Rhapis aspera (?) one of the most notable dwarf palms
The above are planted in a group. In other parts of the garden are magnificent examples of:
Chamaerops tomentosa
Seaforthia elegans
Sabal umbraculifera
Chamaerops humilis and Phoenix dactylifera are too "common to deserve special mention"
Recently arrived from Rio de Janeiro good specimens of Oreodoxa regia.

Dracaena indivisa 14 feet grows well even to the north hopes that soon will be seen in all gardens
Dracaena draco One of the oldest specimens trunk 13 feet in diameter 40 feet high
Dracaena australis rubra
Cordyline Cannaefolia
Cordyline fragrans (New Zealand)
Cordyline brasiliensis
Dracaena heliconiaefolia
Found throughout the gardens, much esteemed for contrasting foliage and elegant habit.

Strelitzia augusta
Bonapartea juncea & Strelitzia reginae : still rare. They are grown at Kew in the succulent house - but one must come to Lumiar to appreciate them.
Bonapartea longifolia
Bonapartea gracilis
B. juncea is in flower and promises to produce ripe seed.
Bonapartea glauca
Pincenectitia tuberculata (same family) trunk 5 foot girth, 3 feet high, flowering spike 4 feet

Agaves & Aloes will be described togeter with those in Cascaes.

Araucaria excelsa 2 were planted in 1841, the first in Portugal. One is now 80 feet high. First cones were produced 10 years ago, but only in 1873 were fertile seeds produced.
Araucaria brasiliensis abundant 58 feet
Araucaria imbricata & Araucaria bidwillii slower growing
Araucaria Rulei grows no better
Araucaria Cookii & Araucaria Cunninghamii good specimens

Taxodium sempervirens 80 feet
Wellingtonia gigantea - does not grow well in Portugal, much inferior to England or even Germany
Abies Pinsapo Goeze had never managed to obtain seed from Spain, but collected seed at Lumiar to distribute to England and Germany
Dammara robusta
Podocarpus elongatus (Cape)

Goeze did not list more species because he was planning a book on the exotic species of Portugal

Quercus insignis Mexico
Acacia heterophylla
Jacaranda mimosaefolia flowers and gives seed, not widely grown at this time
Fagus asplenifolia -well known in England a novelty here
Franciscea latifolia surprised to see this flowering in Lisbon
Also flowering: Camellias, Rhododendrons, Azaleas, Gardenias
Sheltered by common trees such as Aesculus hippocastanum, Fagus sylvatica, F. purpurea, Ulmus latifolia, Sterculia platanifolia, Grevillea robusta, many species of Casuarina.

Bougainvillea brasiliensis a seedling was named Bougainvillea Palmella

The quinta presently occupies 4 smaller quintas total area 125 acres. Terraces with flower beds (taboleiros), valleys, picturesque "ladeiras" pergolas. Charming grottos and lakes.

Bambusa gracilis
Bambusa nigra

Greenhouses (estufas)
Weiss hybridised Begonias and calladiums (many of these grown in other countries, but not often with their Portuguese names). Caladium Chantini (male) x Alocasia (brazillian sp.) female. However further information from William Bull suggested that the supposed Alocasia was probably Alocasia argyroneura Koch. which was actually Caladium Schroderii. But Goeze stuck with Alocasia brazileira (of Lumiar). He would wait and see. The plants were sold to Veitch of Chelsea.


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